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7.8.06
H5N1 virus

From Wikipedia:
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1
, also known as A(H5N1) or H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus that is capable of causing illness in many animal species, including humans.[1] A bird-adapted strain of H5N1, called HPAI A(H5N1) for "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1", is the causative agent of H5N1 flu, commonly known as "avian influenza" or simply "bird flu", and is endemic in many bird populations, especially in Southeast Asia. One strain of HPAI A(H5N1) of Asian lineage is spreading globally. It is epizootic (an epidemic in nonhumans) and panzootic (a disease affecting animals of many species, especially over a wide area), killing tens of millions of birds and spurring the culling of hundreds of millions of other birds in an attempt to control its spread. Most references in the media to "bird flu" and to H5N1 are about this specific strain.[2]

HPAI A(H5N1) is an avian disease, and there is no evidence of efficient human-to-human transmission or of airborne transmission of HPAI A(H5N1) to humans. In almost all cases, those infected with H5N1 have had extensive physical contact with infected birds. However, around 50% of humans known to have been infected with the current Asian strain of HPAI A(H5N1) have died from H5N1 flu, and H5N1 has the potential to mutate or reassort into a strain capable of efficient human-to-human transmission. In 2003, world-renowned virologist Robert Webster published an article titled "The world is teetering on the edge of a pandemic that could kill a large fraction of the human population" in American Scientist calling for adequate resources to fight what he sees as a major world threat to possibly billions of lives.[3] On September 29, 2005, David Nabarro, the newly-appointed Senior United Nations System Coordinator for Avian and Human Influenza, warned the world that an outbreak of avian influenza could kill anywhere between 5 million and 150 million people.[4] Experts have identified key events (creating new clades, infecting new species, spreading to new areas) marking the progression of an avian flu virus towards becoming pandemic, and many of those key events have occurred more rapidly than expected.

Due to the high lethality and virulence of HPAI A(H5N1), its endemic presence, its increasingly large host reservoir, and its significant ongoing mutations, the H5N1 virus is the world's largest current pandemic threat, and billions of dollars are being spent researching H5N1 and preparing for a potential influenza pandemic.[5] At least 12 companies and 17 governments are developing pre-pandemic influenza vaccines in 28 different clinical trials that, if successful, could turn a deadly pandemic infection into a nondeadly one. Full-scale production of a vaccine that could prevent any illness at all from the strain would require at least three months after the virus's emergence to begin, but it is hoped that vaccine production could increase until one billion doses were produced by one year after the initial identification of the virus.

So, be careful out there, if this virus were detected on your area, please call the police, and take the victim to the hospital immediately, wait for nothing, because the virus could infect others.
posted by Blog Admin @ 06:38   0 comments
7.7.06
Dengue

Transmission

Dengue viruses are transmitted to humans through the bites of infective female Aedes mosquitoes. Mosquitoes generally acquire the virus while feeding on the blood of an infected person. After virus incubation for 8-10 days, an infected mosquito is capable, during probing and blood feeding, of transmitting the virus, to susceptible individuals for the rest of its life. Infected female mosquitoes may also transmit the virus to their offspring by transovarial (via the eggs) transmission, but the role of this in sustaining transmission of virus to humans has not yetbeen delineated.

Humans are the main amplifying host of the virus, although studies have shown that in some parts of the world monkeys may become infected and perhaps serve as a source of virus for uninfected mosquitoes. The virus circulates in the blood of infected humans for two to seven days, at approximately the same time as they have fever; Aedes mosquitoes mayacquire the virus when they feed on an individual during this period.

Characteristics

Dengue fever is a severe, flu-like illness that affects infants, young children and adults, but seldom causes death.

The clinical features of dengue fever vary according to the age of the patient. Infants and young children may have a non-specific febrile illness with rash. Older children and adults may have either a mild febrile syndrome or the classical incapacitating disease with abrupt onset and high fever, severe headache, pain behind the eyes, muscle and jointpains, and rash.

Dengue haemorrhagic fever is a potentially deadly complication that is characterized by high fever, haemorrhagic phenomena--often with enlargement of the liver--and in severe cases, circulatory failure. The illness commonly begins with a sudden rise in temperature accompanied by facial flush and other non-specific constitutional symptoms of dengue fever. The fever usually continues for two to seven days and can be as high as 40-41°C, possibly with febrile convulsions and haemorrhagicphenomena.

In moderate DHF cases, all signs and symptoms abate after the fever subsides. In severe cases, the patient's condition may suddenly deteriorate after a few days of fever; the temperature drops, followed by signs of circulatory failure, and the patient may rapidly go into a critical state of shock and die within 12-24 hours, or quickly recoverfollowing appropriate volume replacement therapy.

Treatment

There is no specific treatment for dengue fever. However, careful clinical management by experienced physicians and nurses frequently saves the lives of DHF patients. With appropriate intensive supportive therapy, mortality may be reduced to less than 1%. Maintenance of the circulating fluidvolume is the central feature of DHF case management.

Immunization

Vaccine development for dengue and DHF is difficult because any of four different viruses may cause disease, and because protection against only one or two dengue viruses could actually increase the risk of more serious disease. Nonetheless, progress is being made in the development of vaccines that may protect against all four dengue viruses. Such productsmay become available for public health use within several years.

Prevention and control

At present, the only method of controlling or preventing dengue and DHF is to combat the vector mosquitoes.

In Asia and the Americas, Aedes aegypti breeds primarily in man-made containers like earthenware jars, metal drums and concrete cisterns used for domestic water storage, as well as discarded plastic food containers, used automobile tyres and other items that collect rainwater. In Africa it also breeds extensively in natural habitats such as tree holes and leafaxils.

In recent years, Aedes albopictus, a secondary dengue vector in Asia, has become established in: the United States, several Latin American and Caribbean countries, in parts of Europe and in one African country. The rapid geographic spread of this species has been largely attributed to theinternational trade in used tyres.

Vector control is implemented using environmental management and chemical methods. Proper solid waste disposal and improved water storage practices, including covering containers to prevent access by egg laying female mosquitoes are among methods that are encouraged through community-basedprogrammes.

The application of appropriate insecticides to larval habitats, particularly those which are considered useful by the householders, e.g. water storage vessels, prevent mosquito breeding for several weeks but must be re-applied periodically. Small, mosquito-eating fish and copepods (tiny crustaceans) have also been used with some success. During outbreaks, emergency control measures may also include the application of insecticides as space sprays to kill adult mosquitoes using portable or truck-mounted machines or even aircraft. However, the killing effect is only transient, variable in its effectiveness because the aerosol droplets may not penetrate indoors to microhabitats where adult mosquitoes are sequestered, and the procedure is costly and operationally very demanding. Regular monitoring of the vectors' susceptibility to the most widely used insecticides is necessary to ensure the appropriate choice of chemicals. Active monitoring and surveillance of the natural mosquito population should accompany control efforts in order to determine the impact of the programme.

posted by Blog Admin @ 07:48   0 comments
MESOTHELIOMA STAGES

Treatment options are often determined by the stage of mesothelioma a patient is in. There are three staging systems currently in use for pleural mesothelioma and each one measures somewhat different variables;peritoneal mesothelioma is not staged.

The oldest staging system and the one most often used is the Butchart System which is based mainly on the extent of primary tumor mass and divides mesotheliomas into four stages. The more recent TNM system considers variables of tumor in mass and spread, lymph node involvement, and metastasis. The Brigham System is the latest system and stages mesothelioma according to resectability (the ability to surgically remove)and lymph node involvement.

Butchart System – extent of primary tumor mass

* Stage I: Mesothelioma is present in the right or left pleura and may also involve the diaphragm on the same side.
* Stage II: Mesothelioma invades the chest wall or involves the esophagus, heart, or pleura on both sides. Lymph nodes in the chest may also be involved.
* Stage III: Mesothelioma has penetrated through the diaphragm into the lining of the abdominal cavity or peritoneum. Lymph nodes beyond those in the chest may also be involved.
* Stage IV: There is evidence of metastasis or spread through the bloodstream to other organs.

TNM System -- variables of T (tumor), N (lymph nodes), M (metastasis)

* Stage I: Mesothelioma involves right or left pleura and may also have spread to the lung, pericardium, or diaphragm on the same side. Lymph nodes are not involved.
* Stage II: Mesothelioma has spread from the pleura on one side to nearby lymph nodes next to the lung on the same side. It may also have spread into the lung, pericardium, or diaphragm on the same side.
* Stage III: Mesothelioma is now in the chest wall, muscle, ribs, heart, esophagus, or other organs in the chest on the same side with or without spread to lymph nodes on the same side as the primary tumor.
* Stage IV: Mesothelioma has spread into the lymph nodes in the chest on the side opposite the primary tumor, or extends to the pleura or lung on the opposite side, or directly extends into organs in the abdominal cavity or neck. Any distant metastases is included in this stage.

Brigham System: (variables of tumor resectability and nodal status)

* Stage I: Resectable mesothelioma and no lymph node involvement
* Stage II: Resectable mesothelioma but with lymph node involvement
* Stage III: Unresectable mesothelioma extending into chest wall, heart, or through diaphragm, peritoneum; with or without extrathoracic lymph node involvement
* Stage IV: Distant metastatic disease

posted by Blog Admin @ 05:17   0 comments
Mesothelioma part-3

Mesothelioma is a disease that is almost 100% preventable; the only known cause is via exposure to the deadly mineral Asbestos. It comes from inhaling the particles of dust as the asbestos degrades; eating away at the lining of your lungs and developing into a deadly cancer. Dust that was inhaled in clouds of white powder, dust that was carried home on the clothes of the men who built this country, dust that was cleaned from the clothes by the wives and children who supported their sole provider at home, dust that was packed around the heating systems in houses and offices and schools, dust that carried a deadly price; and dust made afortune in blood money for the companies that produced it.

Unfortunately, the effects of asbestos on the human body were known to be deadly for years by the companies who employed the ‘greatest generation’ and made hundreds of millions, if not billions, of dollars off of their backs. But instead of taking simple steps to alleviate the problem and save the lives of thousands of their workers, they choose to do nothing and continue to make a “healthy” profit with a “deadly” product. Many even went so far as to hide the truth from their workers and their families. And because the normal latency period for Mesothelioma (The time from exposure until the patient falls ill) is 20 to 30 years, many got away with this for years. We are only now beginning to see the full effects of the disease, and feel the terrible outcry of the people against those whoput profits before human lives to a degree that is simply unfathomable.

posted by Blog Admin @ 05:09   0 comments
MESOTHELIOMA SYMPTOMS

Symptoms

As the volume of fluid increases, shortness of breath, known as "dyspnea", and sometimes pain, ranging from mild to stabbing, may occur. Some patients may experience a dry cough. When the doctor listens to the patient’s chest with a stethoscope, normal breath sounds are muted, andtapping on the chest will reveal dull rather than hollow sounds.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis of pleural effusion is usually accomplished with a simple chest x-ray, although CT scans or ultrasound may also be used. A special x-ray technique, called a lateral decubitus film, may be used to detect smaller effusions or to enable the physician to estimate of the amount of fluid present. If the underlying cause of the effusion is readily apparent (such as in the case of severe congestive heart failure), sampling of the fluid may not be necessary, however, because pleural effusion may be symptomatic of a number of disease processes from benign to malignant, a fluid sample is generally taken. Diagnostic thoracentesis, in which cells are extracted from the pleural cavity, is commonly done when the possibility of mesothelioma exists, however, in up to 85% of cases, the fluid tests negative or inconclusive even though cancer is present. It is ultimately a needle biopsy of the pleura (lining of the lung) or an open surgicalbiopsy which confirms a mesothelioma diagnosis.

Treatment

Pleural effusion caused by heart failure or infection can usually be resolved by directing treatment at the cause, however, when testing has realized no diagnosis, and fluid continues to build or recur, doctors may recommend chest tube drainage and chemical pleurodesis. Chemical pleurodesis is a technique in which a sclerosing agent is used to abrade the pleural surfaces producing an adhesion between the parietal and visceral pleurae. This will prevent further effusion by eliminating the pleural space. Talc appears to be the most effective agent for pleurodesis, with a success rate of nearly 95%. It is highly effective when administered by either poudrage or slurry. Poudrage is the most widely used method of instilling talc into the pleural space. Before spraying the talc, the medical team removes all pleural fluid to completely collapse the lung. After the talc is administered, they inspect the pleural cavity to be sure the talc has been evenly distributed over the pleural surface. Some doctors prefer to use talc mixed with saline solution which forms a wet slurry that can roll around the pleural cavity.

posted by Blog Admin @ 05:04   0 comments
6.7.06
Air Conditioners

It’s that time of year again. Things are starting to heat up, the snow is melting and it’s time to start looking for a new air conditioner or swamp cooler. Along with the warm weather comes the allergy inducing pollens and debry in the air. If you have allergies, you may want to invest in an air conditioner with air purifying and air cleaning features. If you live in a dry climate, you may want a humidifier. Some air conditioner systems may include all of the above features, and more. This article will tell you what to look for in an air conditioner and help you decide what type ofair conditioner system will be right for you this summer.

There are many types of air conditioners, and many variables that can affect which air conditioner you purchase. If you are looking at the long term and live in a climate with both extreme summers and winters, you may want a system that is both an air conditioner and a heater. If you would like to cool or heat only certain areas of your house, or particular rooms, to conserve energy, or just for convenience, a portable air conditioner may suit your needs. A portable air conditioner can also be taken on trips to relatives, to the cabin by the lake, on a boat, or anumber of other places.

A dry climate can irritate your skin causing it to become too dry and begin to crack. For those who have a hard time coping with a dry climate you may want to look at air conditioners that includes a humidifier feature. You can create your own refuge from the heat and dryness of the environment that surrounds you. On the other hand, you may live in an overly humid climate, in which case you may consider purchasing a dehumidifier to get that sticky wet feeling off of your body that those who have lived in humid climates understand.

If you have allergies, you may want an air purifier feature attached with your air conditioner. When looking for air purifiers, be sure to find out if it is a HEPA, a brand well known for removing toxins and allergens from the air through their powerful HEPA air filters. HEPA and activated carbon technology can remove the smallest airborne particles and eliminate noxious gases, chemicals, and odors. Separate air cleaner filters eliminate virtually all irritants, including infectious microorganisms. Check the description of your air purifier before you purchase it, to see how powerful and effective it is, for example, for how many square feed it is guaranteed to purify the air. Some air purifiers are good for purifying the air in a single room, while others may purify your whole house.

Evaporative coolers and swamp coolers or air conditioners work by soaking water through foam like filters. As the water evaporates, the air flowing through the filters cools significantly. The evaporating water takes the heat from the pads. A fan inside the unit sucks the air through, speeding up the evaporative process and blowing the cool air into your home or office. The pads can catch much of the bad air and keep it from enteringyour home or office as well.

Be sure to research your air conditioners, swamp coolers, humidifiers, and evaporative coolers as this warm season begins, so that you can find one that is most suitable to your needs. There are many types of air conditioners with a variety of features that may or may not be best for
you.

posted by Blog Admin @ 10:20   0 comments
Air Purifiers

Breathing is something that is vital to life. It is something we all do and need to do constantly to enable us to live. If you are not doing itnow then I’m sorry but you cannot continue to read this, as you are dead.

This article is not about breathing though; it is about what we breathe. Well, that is obvious, air. Yep, but let us, for a minute, think aboutwhat may be in the air we breathe.

Apart from the components of air such as oxygen, which is the bit we need, the air you breathe is full of other particles and you need to think about an air purifier to filter these potentially harmful particles out of the air or in other words purify the air. I am sure you have seen sunlight coming through you windows and when you are at a certain angle you have seen dust particles floating in the air. You breathe these in unless you can use an air purifier to remove them or hopefully most of them. Its not only dust though, people and animals drop flakes of dead skin which is why you need an air purifier. Tobacco smoke produces particles of smoke, which is why you need an air purifier, and vehicles also produce particles of smoke from their engines, which is why you need an air purifier.

So what do air purifiers do? Quite simply they filter the air that you breathe near to them. They help to purify the air and remove airborne particles. There are many different types of air purifiers and these can be systems designed to purify all the air in your entire house down to small systems which work in a single room. They filter out all sorts of things such as smoke, dust and particles of dust and dead skin from your pets. Just remember though, they cannot filter out all particles but they can purify the air fairly well.

There is another type of air purifier, the HEPA type which can filter out particles down to 3 microns in size and can catch 99.9% of these particles. HEPA stands for High Efficiency Particulate Arrestancepurifiers.

There are also ozone air purifiers but some people have suggested that these may not be good for you. I do not have the answer to this but untilI am convinced of their usefulness, I will stick to an HEPA filter.

Before you buy your air purifier you need to make sure it suits your needs so make sure you carry out internet research and check manufacturers brochures. Whatever you decide though, there is nothing to beat having a look at one and seeing it operating before you buy. Remember, there is nothing worse than buying an air purifier only to find out it is so noisythat you cannot be in the same room when your air purifier is operating.

posted by Blog Admin @ 10:19   0 comments
The Root Canal Treatment, Gum Infection and Apicoectomy

When a root canal filling develops a granuloma, cyst, or some other infected area at the end of the root, dentists will sometimes endeavor to save the tooth by performing an operation called apicoectomy. The area of infection seen on x-ray pictures is actually a hole in the bone of the jaw eaten away by bacteria and toxins. It contains pus, bacteria and infected tissue.

The apicoectomy surgery is done using a local anesthetic. An incision is made in the gum and the dentist invades the infected area and curettesaway the diseased tissue.

In order to be able to remove all infected tissue surrounding a tooth's root end, it is sometimes necessary to also remove a portion of the tooth's root end (apex). This is done with a surgical dental burr or drill. The term apicoectomy was adopted because the end tip of the root isso often removed during this procedure.

Two or three stitches are used to close the wound. These areas experience some swelling for two or three days but generally heal with very little discomfort. Usually new bone immediately begins to grow and fill in the jaw at the end of the root, and after six to 12 months one can no longer distinguish the location of the infection sight. In other words, thearea's appearance is now normal.

At times when cysts or other large areas of infection are found, dentists will elect to do the root canal treatment and apicoectomy at the same sitting. Generally I preferred doing both procedures simultaneously because it was much easier to clean out the root canal that way. In addition, we could spray a disinfectant through the root canal and vacuum the debris and infected material out from the root-end surgical area.

It was also easier to get a good dense root canal filling as any overpacking could easily be removed.

In my practice I did a fair number of these apicoectomy surgeries and I cannot recall any which did not show full healing at the end of the root of the tooth, usually within the period of one year. We were notuniversally successful with teeth treated nonsurgically.

A couple of case history reports from my files will allow you to see how well infections responded to the apicoectomy procedure.

The first is of a woman who came home from a trip to Mexico with severe diarrhea and intestinal involvement. When a leading Beverly Hills gastroenterologist was unable to cure her intestinal infection, thepatient, knowing I was doing nutritional counseling, sought my opinion.

Oral examination didn't indicate any obvious pathologic conditions or tooth decay, but there were many fillings present. Full mouth x-ray examination disclosed large abscesses from accessory canals on both of herupper lateral incisors (the teeth next to the two front teeth).

posted by Blog Admin @ 10:19   0 comments
Effective Sun Protection

With all of us feverishly trying to keep up with the latest fads Hollywood exports, finally there is a fashion tip that will truly enhance our lives.

Recently, Tom Cruise’s former sidekick Nicole Kidman was quoted by the Associated Press as saying: “I wish that I hadn’t been born with red hair and fair skin” as she is concerned about the amount sun exposure and its direct link to an increased risk for skin cancer. She should know, too. After all, she hails from Australia where skin cancer is an explodingepidemic.

Subsequently, Australia is the leading the world in heightening the quality of skin cancer prevention education and proactive sun safety behavior. Truth be told, skin cancer is the world’s most common cancer. Americans are no exception to the rule either! Every hour someone in the United States dies from skin cancer, according to the American Academy of Dermatology (www.AAD.org). Perhaps, Kidman’s example will encourage the propagation of a new fashion wave - sun protective clothing (www.SunSavvy.net).

Whereas, sun protective clothing (also known as ultraviolet radiation protective clothing; or “UVR”) is widely used in Australia, Europe, and South Africa, it is still relatively unknown here in the U.S. Sun protective clothing, however, is a highly effective option for individuals to protect themselves from the harmful affects of UV-rays all day, everyday.

If you consider that the average white 100% cotton t-shirt is equivalent to only a SPF 6 (which provides about 14% worth of sun protection), clearly there is a need for light-weight, functional, stylish, economical, clothing that also provides exceptional protection from over-exposure to the sun.

On the other hand, sun protective clothing blocks out more than 97.5% of UV rays (which is an equivalent to a SPF 30 sunscreen). This is considered by the Skin Cancer Foundation to be “the best of the best” as it were when it comes to effective sun protection. If you consider that a SPF 20 sunscreen is allowing only five out of every 100 UV protons to reach your skin; it is 95% protective, than sun protective clothing is quite simply the most revolutionary new product available on the market today for those looking for a viable, yet extremely effective, way to protect themselvesand their loved ones from sun damage.

Dermatologist-oncologist, Sancy A. Leachman of the Tom C. Mathews Jr. Familial Melanoma Research Clinic at The Huntsman Cancer Institute (www.HuntsmanCancer.org) recommends that everyone use a sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 15 for daily, year-round use; SPF 30 is recommended if we are outdoors between 10:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. when UVrays are most intense.

SPF 30 sunscreen is also highly recommended for those of us who possess multiple risk factors for skin cancer such as blonde or red hair, blue or green eyes, fair or sensitive skin, many atypical moles, and even family history of skin cancer – like Nicole Kidman. Wearing sun protective clothing, coupled with proper year-round use of sunscreens, is the quite simply the best protection available, Sancy says. And her colleagues inthe field of dermatological medicine agree.

“Appropriate sun apparel should offer effective protection against both short term and long term photo damage [such as wrinkling, skin cancer, and even cataracts],” says Dr. J.M. Mentor, who also teaches dermatology at the Morehouse School of Medicine (www.MSM.edu). In other words, effective sun safety apparel ought to protect against both UV-B and UV-A rays, and
sun protective products such as those specially manufactured by Stingray in Australia, do exactly that.

Stingray is the original sun protection clothing company to specialize in UV protection swimwear and daily attire for children and adults. “As a result of listening to the needs of our many customers, we are able to deliver products that take the ‘sting out of the sun’s rays,’” says Wendy
Lister, Managing Director of Stingray. “[People] are now getting the best possible UV protection.” Those living at high altitudes or near the equator, have the highest risk in for skin cancer, according to the American Academy of Dermatology.

Glen and Liisa Tomson, both natives of South Africa, know first-hand the devastating toll sun damage can take on our health. As such, they have recently partnered up with The Cancer Crusaders Organization (www.CancerCrusaders.org) in a five-year international skin cancer prevention education campaign called “Only Skin Deep?” This program aims to actively engage parents and young adults in the fight against theworld’s most common, yet preventable, cancer.

“We see a great and pressing need for increased awareness and education here in the U.S.,” says Glen Tomson. “Too many times my wife and I will be at the pool, and see all these children running around sun burnt. Often, we’ll offer shade [clothing] and sunscreen to the parents so they can better protect their children.” Glen and Liisa, in addition to being entrepreneurs and experts, are parents and realize the importance of instilling the practice of sunscreen usage and the wearing of sun protective clothing at a young age so as to develop a lifelong habit of sun safety behavior.

In fact, the American Academy of Dermatology reports that sustaining just one severe “blistering” sunburn before age 18 increases one’s likeliness of a future skin cancer diagnosis by an estimated 60%. In other words, 80% of one’s lifetime skin damage occurs in the first 18 years of life. Thisis of particular concern the mountain states where high elevation exposes us to more intense UV irradiation.

Dr. Leachman illustrates it best by saying, “Someone standing on the summit of Mt. Timpanogos [Utah] will burn 66-to-77 times faster than someone standing on a beach in Los Angeles [California].” Lechman adds, “Skin cancer incidence is increasing at an alarming rate here in theUnited States, so it is important that we all take proper precautions to protect ourselves.”

The AAD solidifies Leachman’s remarks, reporting 1.3-million Americans will be diagnosed with some form of skin cancer this year. The risk is real,” Leachman says. “There is a real need for people to take necessary precautions and to teach patients how to advocate for themselves [in
reducing their risk for skin cancer].”

posted by Blog Admin @ 10:18   0 comments
Hot Water Freezing

A common chemical process may explain a bizarre property of water that has been a mystery since the time of Aristotle "C how hot water can freezemore quickly than cold."

This strange and counterintuitive effect was first observed by the ancient Greek philosopher and was made famous in recent times by a Tanzanian school student called Erasto Mpemba. He noticed that the sugared milk he was using to make ice cream froze more quickly if it started out hot. Butwhat is behind the so-called "Mpemba effect"?

According to Jonathan Katz of the Washington University in St. Louis, it's all to do with solutes. "You have to ask yourself: what does heating do to water that makes it easier to freeze?" he says. "The answer is that itprecipitates out solutes."

The solutes Katz has in mind are calcium and magnesium bicarbonate, which make most drinking water "hard". When the water is heated, these precipitate out to form the solid scale that "furs" up the inside of akettle.

Water that has never been heated still contains these solutes. As it freezes, ice crystals form, and the concentration of solutes in the remaining water becomes ever higher up to 50 times as high as normal. This lowers the freezing point of the water, just like salt sprinkled on a road
in winter. "The water therefore has to cool further before it freezes," says Katz.

There is a second, related effect that hampers the freezing of water that has never been heated. The lowering of the freezing point reduces the temperature difference between the liquid and its freezing surroundings. "Since the rate at which heat is lost from the water depends on this
temperature difference, water that has not been heated has greater difficulty losing heat," Katz says.

Katz claims that the two effects combined can perfectly explain why water that has been heated freezes more quickly than water that hasn't. And he makes a prediction that experiments should be able to verify: that the Mpemba effect should be more marked the "harder" the water. "This may explain why not everyone sees it," he says. "Some people are using soft water." "Katz's analysis of the Mpemba effect is deeper and more rigorous than anything else on the subject," says Richard Muller of the University of California at Berkeley. "He has come up with a simple yet I believecorrect way to look at a complex phenomenon."

posted by Blog Admin @ 10:16   0 comments
Teeth Bleaching Facts

Unlike whitening toothpastes,which only remove surface stains to reveal the underlying whiteness of teeth, bleaching agents actually make teethwhiter.

The most common teeth bleaching agents are hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide.

The effectiveness of teeth bleaching depends on the color of your teeth. Bleaching works best for yellow stains,while gray teeth, which can result from certain antibiotics, are much harder to whiten.People who have stains from smoking,red wine or coffee can get very good results with teethwhitening.

There are two different ways to get whiter teeth:dental (in-office) whitening, and using a home bleaching kit available through a dentist.

A dentist applies a whitening gel,containing a high concentration of hydrogen peroxide, to your teeth, which is then activated by a special blue high intensity light or laser,causing the gel to release the oxygen molecules.The laser merely activates the bleaching gel,it doesn't actually
penetrate the teeth

The results depend on the shade of your teeth before bleaching.

While in-office teeth bleaching is the safest route to go, home teeth bleaching can be also be safe,and effective,if done properly and under thesupervision of a dentist.

Tray teeth whitening technique involves the use of a plastic tray that is filled with bleaching gel and then fitted over your teeth.By keeping the bleaching gel in contact with your teeth, for the prescribed period of time, your teeth will get whiter.Persons who are using the teeth bleaching
products should always ask a dentist for advice.

Increased tooth sensitivity and gum irritation and are the most common side effects of teeth bleaching.Some people even experience extreme pain.Your dentist will advise you on the appropriate steps to take if yourteeth become sensitive during the bleaching process.

Although the results of teeth whitening can vary from person to person, most people are very satisfied with their results.But if teeth bleaching isn't working for you or if have teeth that are shaped badly or crooked,veneers may be the option.

posted by Blog Admin @ 10:15   0 comments
Heart Disease

Even the most mindful woman may not recognize her number one health threat - heart disease.

"Women and Heart Disease: Myths, Magnitude, and Management," the recent edition of the We Care for You brochure series produced by the Office of Health Promotion at Baylor College of Medicine, provides the fundamentals of heart disease that are all too often ignored by women and the medicalfield.

"We are so worried about breast cancer that we tune out the fact that heart disease is the number one killer of women older than 25 years old," said Dr. Karla Kurrelmeyer, assistant professor of medicine-cardiology at BCM. "Cardiovascular diseases kill twice as many women as all forms ofcancer combined."

Due to this lack of attention, women are generally under-treated for heart disease. To avoid becoming a statistic, Kurrelmeyer encourages women to take a proactive role in their health care. The following are simple wayswomen can reduce their risk of heart disease:

* Don't smoke.
* Eat a healthy diet.
* Exercise regularly.
* Maintain mental wellness.
* See a physician regularly.
* Get enough sleep.

"Although all women are susceptible to heart disease, they can manage their health through awareness, healthy behaviors, aggressive treatment, and a partnership with their physicians," said Kurrelmeyer. "The controllable risk factors for heart disease can be improved through simplelifestyle changes."

posted by Blog Admin @ 10:15   1 comments
Losing Weight While Keeping Your Skin Firm

Considering you don't have an excessive amount of loose skin already it is possible to lose weight and keep your skin firm in the process. The idea is to keep your body well hydrated day in and day out. NEVER EVER let yourself become dehydrated. Drink plenty of water throughout the day and NEVER EVER totally eliminate your carbohydrate intake. From my experience most people who have lost weight too fast by eliminating their carbohydrates ended up with a lot of excess skin afterwards. The whole idea is to lose the weight to get healthier and of course to look betterwith your clothes ON and with your clothes OFF. Here are some tips

1. Follow a well rounded balanced diet such as my insulin response diet located at http://www.tbfinc.com

2. Follow a full body exercise routine alternating with a split routine every 4 weeks. For example, full body routine 4 weeks, split routine 4weeks, full body routine 4 weeks, and so on.

3. Considering you don't have stomach ulcers and you are not on blood thinners you should also take ONE TEASPOON of cold artic cod liver oilONCE PER DAY with your evening meal.

4. Take 1000-1500mg of lecithin per day. Lecithin has been known to increase the elasticity of the skin.

5. Anything you can do to increase circulation will also help. Skin brushing techniques are very good. Do a search on the internet for skin brushing to get all the info you need. Deep massages are also good.

6. Most importantly if you are more than 75 pounds overweight DO NOT try to lose weight too fast. The more you weigh the easier it will be to lose weight on this program so ease into it slowly so you only lose about 3 pounds per week. Doing this will prevent the sagging skin. If you loseweight too fast you will end up with loose skin 90% of the time.

7. Some of my clients have done weekly body wraps with great success but it can get messy. You can do this as an option but it's really notnecessary.

As an option you can also take a supplement called collagen.

As I stated above one key to increasing the elasticity of your skin is to keep your body well hydrated. Yes, drinking water will do this. The average person needs at least ½ an ounce of water per pound of body weight. Possibly more depending on the type of exercise you do on a daily basis. The reason why so many people end up with loose skin after losing weight is because they go on low carbohydrate diets that will in turn dehydrate the body. If you lose weight and are dehydrated in the process you will see the scale weight go down but unfortunately most of the weight being lost is nothing more than water weight. If you are losing 2-3 pounds per week you are doing great. If you are losing 4-6 pounds you are pushing the limit. Any more than 6 pounds per week and you are sure to end up with loose skin after losing the weight because chances are you are restricting too many carbohydrates from your diet. Cutting out refined flours/breadsand sugars will yield the best results.

Also, instead of getting on the scale every week to measure your progress go more by how your clothes are fitting. I always tell my clients to try on the tightest pair of pants they have and then follow my program for 4 weeks and then try them on again. After 4 weeks those tight fitting pantswill be a thing of the past.

Follow all the above and you will see satisfactory results.

posted by Blog Admin @ 10:13   1 comments
28.6.06
There’s Something About Marijuana

There is an ongoing debate about the beneficial properties of Marijuana and its effects on the user. However, still mainly considered an illegal substance in most countries, many citizens are beginning to question this prohibition and its effectiveness. It is overly common these days to hear of the continuous efforts put forth to aid the "war on drugs," be it on the news broadcast or the local newspapers. Yet the debate on the legalization of Marijuana has never really ended, but is often merely overlooked. (1)In the United States of America alone, more that 36 states have legalized Marijuana, when it is prescribed by a doctor to a patient affected with harmful side effects of cancer chemotherapy, glaucoma, AIDS and various incurable and debilitating illnesses. So what position shouldbe taken against this so-called "war on drugs"?

A drug is a drug. Whatever some might say about Marijuana, the truth is that it still is a type of drug, which affects both body and mind. Several side effects should be considered worrisome, especially for those who smoke it regularly. Some of the recognizable side effects of marijuana
include:

-Memory loss
-Distorted perception
-Trouble with thinking and problem solving
-Loss of motor skills
-Decrease in muscle strength
-Increased heart rate
-Anxiety

Nevertheless, some groups pushing the legalization of Marijuana promote its "beneficial" effects, referring to both medical and personal use. (2)Some common claims made are: Marijuana will create pacifism and reduce the stress level in our lives, legalizing it will decrease the crime rate
and eliminate the need of a black market, marijuana has medicinal values, and that no one ever died from smoking Marijuana. No one ever died from smoking Marijuana. Scientific studies have shown some shocking evidence of the serious health problems a regular Marijuana smoker may encounter: (3)"Marijuana contains more than 400 chemicals, including most of the harmful substances found in tobacco smoke. Smoking one marijuana cigarette deposits about four times more tar into the lungs than a filtered tobacco cigarette." (3)"There are also many long-term health consequences of marijuana use. According to the National Institutes of Health, studies
show that someone who smokes five joints per week may be taking in as many cancer-causing chemicals as someone who smokes a full pack of cigarettes every day."

Evidence that Marijuana seriously affects the well functioning of our bodies is simply piling. The argument of its medical "benefits" may come up once more for the terminally ill, yet marijuana still hasn't been proven to cure anything. Drugs don't cure! The most they can do is attenuate the symptoms of the illness. The body's immune system, notably the white blood cells, is responsible for fighting the disease. (3)Furthermore, it has been proven by a study conducted by a Columbia
University that a control group smoking a single marijuana cigarette every other day for a year had a white-blood-cell count that was 39 percent lower than normal, thus damaging the immune system and making the user far more susceptible to infection and sickness.

Right there, we can clearly realize how Marijuana is not a "harmless" drug. Its immediate effects may be appealing to many, but in the long run, the health problems and illnesses that will result from a regular use ofMarijuana outweigh the "appealing" ones.

The results from the increased media coverage and debates on Marijuana legalization have led today's youths and teenagers to believe that Marijuana is a safe and carefree drug to use. This is particularly alarming for a decrease in their vigilance and awareness of drugs may lead to greater problems. (3)In the U.S.A. alone, there is a significant increase in the number of teenagers seeking treatment for a Marijuana addiction. Marijuana reduces their ability to concentrate on their studies, and damages their memory, thus reducing their academic capabilities. The youth and teenagers seem to be fed the wrong type of information, and need to be informed on the "other side of the medal," specifically how their future projects and ambitions may be rapidly put toa stop due to their use of Marijuana during their prime years.

Overall, Marijuana isn't the most dangerous drug, but it still has no proven medical evidence of aiding in the cure of illnesses. Therefore, one can't say that it is beneficial, for it is wrong. One can't say that it is harmless, for it contains hundreds of cancer-related chemicals. One can't
claim that it will reduce the profits made by the black market, for we can't predict the effects legalization shall have. So, why is there still a debate on Marijuana? The evidence is crystal clear, the doctors aren't convinced of its medicinal properties, and most of all, it is a DRUG. The facts are simply mounting everyday: the consumption of Marijuana brings about more harm to one's health than any benefits it could ever provide. Drugs, particularly excessive use of Marijuana, have this unconditional power to continually diminish mental and physical abilities. Be above the influence, you can make an educated decision and refuse to consume any Marijuana or its by-products.

posted by Blog Admin @ 13:31   0 comments
27.6.06
Malignant Mesothelioma

Malignant mesothelioma is a rare form of cancer that affects the mesothelial cells around the heart, lungs or abdominal organs. The most common type of mesothelioma is the one which affects the pleura, the thin membrane between the lungs and the chest cavity. This type of the disease is known as Pleural Mesothelioma, and sufferers can experience symptoms which include: shortness of breath, breathing difficulties, persistentcoughing, chest pains, weight loss, and trouble swallowing.

Peritoneal Mesothelioma is another form of this disease but is not as common as Pleural Mesothelioma. This type of the disease affects the peritoneum membrane of the abdomen. These tumors can also be found in the stomach and abdominal organs. Sufferers of Peritoneal Mesothelioma can experience symptoms which include: stomach pains and abdominal swelling,
nausea, loss if appetite, vomiting, bowel obstruction, and blood clotting abnormalities.

The third and the rarest type of mesothelioma is Pericardial Mesothelioma, which affects the tissue and cavity surrounding the heart. Patients of this type of the disease may experience symptoms such as shortness ofbreath, chest pains, persistent coughing and palpitations.

Malignant mesothelioma is a fatal disease caused by exposure to asbestos. A form of cancer, this disease can affect the sac lining, the chest or the abdomen. An unusual aspect about this disease is that it does not manifest itself for years following the asbestos exposure – in fact, the average
manifestation time is 35-40 years later, and in some cases even 50 years later.

In previous years, asbestos was widely used in many places. Many people worked with this deadly material, unaware that several decades later it would be the death of them. Workers such as insulaters, plasterers, electricians, mechanics, bricklayers, carpenters, and other tradesmen were exposed to asbestos on a daily basis as it was contained in manyinsulation and construction materials.

However, it is not only those that were regularly exposed to asbestos that are at risk. There have been many cases of mesothelioma manifestation in people that were only exposed to asbestos for a short period of time. In fact, the disease has even been known to affect people who have had only minimal contact, such as wives that used to wash their husbands overalls
after they had worked with asbestos.

The long latency period attached to mesothelioma means that the symptoms of this disease can take many years to manifest, making both diagnosis and effective treatment very difficult. And even when the symptoms do become evident, which can take several decades, the symptoms are so generalised and non-specific that they could be put down to any number of more common
diseases. This makes it hard for even experienced doctors to make a quick and conclusive diagnosis with mesothelioma patients. The symptoms of this disease can often be confused with pneumonia during its early stages.

Some of the most common symptoms of pleural mesothelioma (which is the most common form of the disease) are shortness of breath and chest pains. This may be accompanied by a persistent cough, and all of these symptoms stem from the build up of fluid between the lining of the lung and the chest cavity. This is known as pleural effusion. This type of the disease
starts in the chest cavity and can then spread to other parts of the body. Pleural mesothelioma sufferers may also begin to display severe breathing difficulty, weight loss and fever as well as trouble swallowing and even swelling of the face and neck. Some patients may also develop a rasping voice and start coughing up blood. However, there are other patients that may not show any significant symptoms at all.

The symptoms for patients who suffer from peritoneal mesothelioma (a rarer form of the disease) are slightly different. This type of the disease starts in the abdomen and can spread form there. Patients of peritoneal mesothelioma can display abdominal pain and swelling, nausea, loss of appetite and vomiting. They can also suffer breathing problems, and chest
pain in addition to these symptoms. These symptoms result from tumors that lean against the abdominal wall. Bowel obstruction, anemia, fever and problems with blood clotting may also affect peritoneal mesothelioma patients.

The rarest form of this disease is pericardial mesothelioma, which starts in the cavity surrounding the heart. With pericardial mesothelioma, the tumors grow in the tissues that surround the heart and can spread from there. Pericardial mesothelioma sufferers may experience chest pain,shortness of breath, persistent coughing and palpitations.

posted by Blog Admin @ 18:41   1 comments
What Is Mesothelioma?

Mesothelioma is a cancerous disease that is becoming more and more common. Affecting the mesothelial cells that make up the mesothelium – the outer lining that protects the body’s major organs such as the heart, stomach and lungs – this form of cancer is a direct result of regular and
unprotected exposure to asbestos. The symptoms and the latency period of this disease mean that it is difficult to diagnose. Treatment for mesothelioma is still being investigated through clinical trials and research, but as a rule it responds poorly to the treatments that are currently used.

The people most at risk from being carriers of this cancer are those have worked with asbestos over the past thirty to fifty years. Because of this, the disease is most common in men between the ages of sixty and seventy as this is the group that commonly worked with asbestos during those years. Because of the lack of protection and regulations in those days, these workers were constantly exposed to the dust and fibres from the asbestos, which caused the cells of the mesothelium to become abnormal. However, because the disease takes decades to develop fully and manifest, many of them were oblivious to this until thirty to fifty years later. It is these
men who are now lodging multi-million dollar lawsuits against the unscrupulous companies that exposed them to the dangers of asbestos, even though they were aware that it could cause harm to the employees.

There are also other people at risk from the disease; namely those who have had regular contact with a person who has worked with asbestos. Because these workers regularly carried dust and fibres on their clothes, skin and in their hair, they fibres and dust could be ingested by family
members, who were then at risk of developing mesothelioma, respiratory problems or another asbestos related disease.

The organs most affected by mesothelioma are the lungs and the surrounding tissue. Pleural mesothelioma, which is the type affecting the lining of the lungs, is the most common variation of this cancer with symptoms which include breathing and swallowing difficulties, coughing, shortness of breath, fever and weight loss. The abdomen is another area affected by this cancer, and this variation is known as peritoneal mesothelioma. This type of mesothelioma is not as common as pleural mesothelioma. Symptoms of peritoneal mesothelioma can include nausea and vomiting, weight loss and loss of appetite, fever, bowel obstruction and pain or swelling of the
stomach area. The last variation of the cancer is pericardial mesothelioma, which is where the cancer affects the heart and the tissue surrounding it. This variation is a rare one, and symptoms can include palpitations, breathing difficulties, and persistent coughing.

The symptoms of mesothelioma are very common to a number of other diseases which are more well-known in society. Therefore, it is not unusual for the patient to be misdiagnosed when he or she goes in displaying any or all of these symptoms. People who have worked with asbestos should always let their doctor know this so that the doctor is more aware and more conscious
of the possibilities in the event that the symptoms do manifest. A speedy diagnosis is important to the effective treatment of mesothelioma, and without being aware of the facts your doctor may not be able to make the diagnosis as quickly as he would if he is aware of the situation.

Although there are treatments for mesothelioma, they do not have a high success rate particularly on patients in whom the cancer is in its later stages. The faster the mesothelioma is diagnosed and treated, the more chance of success, which is why it is important to get as fast a diagnosisas possible.

Current treatments for mesothelioma include surgery, radiation therapy, palliative therapy and chemotherapy. The National Institute of Cancer along with a variety of other organizations and sponsors are currently conducting research into mesothelioma and carrying out clinical trials to
try and find a treatment that will not only be more effective but will enable the successful treatment of the disease even in its later stages.

posted by Blog Admin @ 18:38   0 comments
Mesothelioma part-2

Mesothelioma is one of the deadliest diseases known to man; the average life span of an inflicted person from the time of diagnosis until death is less than 24 months. It’s a disease that strikes approximately 3,000 United States citizens each and every year; hard working people who have
labored for a lifetime to provide for their families, doing the work that keeps this country running and a great place to live. They worked in factories, at shipyards, in mines, for the US military, as engineers, as pipefitters, as steel workers, as auto mechanics, and in so many other
professions. They came home to their loved ones exhausted and covered in dirt and dust; tired, but content that they had a job and were providing for their family. Content that they were putting food on the table and a house over their loved one’s heads. Content that they were working to make a better life for their families in this generation and the next...

But what they didn’t know was that while they were working so hard, they were not only slowly killing themselves, but those that they were workingso hard to help; their family, their loved ones.

Mesothelioma is a disease that is almost 100% preventable; the only known cause is via exposure to the deadly mineral Asbestos. It comes from inhaling the particles of dust as the asbestos degrades; eating away at the lining of your lungs and developing into a deadly cancer. Dust that was inhaled in clouds of white powder, dust that was carried home on the clothes of the men who built this country, dust that was cleaned from the clothes by the wives and children who supported their sole provider at home, dust that was packed around the heating systems in houses and offices and schools, dust that carried a deadly price; and dust made a
fortune in blood money for the companies that produced it.

Unfortunately, the effects of asbestos on the human body were known to be deadly for years by the companies who employed the ‘greatest generation’ and made hundreds of millions, if not billions, of dollars off of their backs. But instead of taking simple steps to alleviate the problem and save the lives of thousands of their workers, they choose to do nothing and continue to make a “healthy” profit with a “deadly” product. Many even went so far as to hide the truth from their workers and their families. And because the normal latency period for Mesothelioma (The time from exposure until the patient falls ill) is 20 to 30 years, many got away with this for years. We are only now beginning to see the full effects of the disease, and feel the terrible outcry of the people against those whoput profits before human lives to a degree that is simply unfathomable.

MesoLink.org is a site created to provide you with up to date information on the deadly disease Mesothelioma. We strive to provide the most complete overview of the disease and all aspects of it. This includes general information on the disease, breaking news on the search for a cure and
perspective legislation designed to limit you as well as all other news on the subject, links to other sites and online resources that can provide important and in-depth Mesothelioma and cancer related information, and a legal guide to help you with the complex legal issues involved with Mesothelioma.

posted by Blog Admin @ 18:37   0 comments
Mesothelioma part-1

Alfacell Provides Update on the ONCONASE Phase IIIb Registration Trial Alfacell Corporation today provided an update on the status of the ongoing confirmatory Phase IIIb registration trial evaluating ONCONASE , the Company's lead investigational drug candidate, as a treatment for
unresectable malignant mesothelioma :

Asbestos Treatment NHS Row
A DRUG that can help fight an asbestos-related cancer has been rejected for NHS use due to cost. Mesothelioma sufferers in England and Wales will not be prescribed the treatment that can extend lives by months. But it is available to sufferers in Scotland.

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Timeline to deal The Mittal-Arcelor saga started earlier this year. Here's how the story unfolded.... January 27: Mr L.N. Mittal made an unsolicited $22.7-billion bid for Arcelor. But Arcelor rejected that bid on the pretext that the two companies did ...

Pesticides Exposure Associated With Parkinson's Disease A large-scale, prospective study has shown links between chronic, low-doseexposure to pesticides and Parkinson's disease.

Professor from Loyola joins isle cancer center Dr. Michele Carbone, lead investigator for two National Cancer Institute grants totaling $3.5 million, has joined the Cancer Research Center of
Hawaii.

posted by Blog Admin @ 18:34   0 comments
Woman Can Make Health Mistakes Too

Men aren’t the only ones making health blunders. Women run to the doctor all the time. Nonetheless, experts say women have a tendency to take care of the rest of the family before taking care of themselves. Women- you are really good at caring for others, but you are not often the bestjudge of your own health.

Maybe you can relate to these common health mistakes made by women:

* Crossing legs at the knee. This can restrict blood flow and cause varicose veins. Better to sit with your feet flat on the ground.
* Skipping breakfast. You need this to function and so you don’t pig out at lunch.
* Wearing perfume in the sun. This can set up a chemical reaction leading to a rash.
* Not self-examining breasts. A trip to the gynecologist once a year is crucial.
* Not getting routine blood tests. Important to check for diabetes. Thyroid test and cholesterol screening should also be part of a routine blood exam.
* Thinking you can't get pregnant after age 40. Even in menopause you can.
* Using too many feminine sprays. Chronic odor can be a sign of thyroid problems, type 2 diabetes, or a shortage of estrogen.
* Not recognizing a heart attack when they feel it. Symptoms can be draining fatigue and sleepiness, even heartburn or indigestion.
* Smoking. Causes heart disease, cancer, not to mention wrinkles.

Women do a lot of thing to look younger and thinner on the outside, but what about doing what makes your health better on the inside? Looking good in your casket won’t help you much! Both men and women need to eat better, exercise regularly, and not be afraid to get timely health care. Afterall, it's a matter of life or death.

posted by Blog Admin @ 13:08   0 comments
Suntan-Oil - How protected are you?

Lots of people consider that a tan makes them more attractive and more healthy-looking, and so go out of their way to sit in the sun for hours and get one. However, this doesn’t always result in much of a tan, meaning that you will often have to sit in the sun for days on end to seeany noticeable effects.

The solution to this problem, at least supposedly, is sun tan oil. Tanning oils are there to make your skin more sensitive to the sun’s ultraviolet rays, meaning that it absorbs more and therefore goes browner. This is controversial, as UV rays have been linked to skin cancer among other diseases, and it is believed that using tanning oils can lead to skin damage – a high price to pay considering the only reason to use them is,essentially, vanity.

The alternatives leave a lot to be desired, though. Using a tanning bed has the same problems in terms of skin damage, and costs a lot too. Fake tan tends to be very fake-looking, making you go more bright orange than brown, and it is hard to escape the feeling that you’re a little tragic if you use it.

With this is mind, many consider the tanning oil alternative to be the best of a bad bunch. It is possible to go some way towards minimising the risks of tanning oil if you get oil that protects you from the sun at least to some extent (look for ones with SPF on the bottle), and try to only stay in the sun for half an hour or so. Since you have put on the tanning oil, it is very important not to stay out for too long, and this is the mistake that many people make.

Whatever you do, remember that tans are not really as healthy as people think they are: a tan is actually your body’s way of dealing with damage that has been caused by the sun, in an effort to stop you from getting sunburn. If you are going to have a tan, it’s wise to limit the times when
you do rather than try to have one all year round, and to be very careful with the sun. If you hurt yourself now, you might not know about it until you’re 50 or even older, but when you find out it won’t be a nice surprise for you.

posted by Blog Admin @ 12:54   1 comments
23.6.06
Some Herbal Medicine Products Contain Potentially Toxic

An analysis of a sample of Ayurvedic herbal medicine products found that 20 percent contained metals such as lead, mercury and arsenic at levels that could be toxic if taken as directed, according to a study in theDecember 15 issue of The Journal of the American Medical Association.

According to background information in the article, approximately 80 percent of India's one billion population uses Ayurveda, a medical system that originated in India more than 2000 years ago and greatly relies on herbal medicine products (HMPs). Ayurveda's popularity in Western countries has increased. Because Ayurvedic HMPs are marketed as dietary supplements, they are regulated under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which does not require proof of safety or efficacy prior to marketing. Herbs, minerals and metals are used in Ayurvedic HMPs. Recent reports of serious lead poisoning associated with taking AyurvedicHMPs were the impetus for the current study.

Robert B. Saper, M.D., M.P.H., formerly of Harvard Medical School, Boston, (currently with the Boston University School of Medicine) and colleagues examined Ayurvedic HMPs manufactured in South Asia and sold in Boston-area stores in order to examine their heavy metal content. From April to October 2003, the researchers purchased 70 different Ayurvedic HMPs at stores within 20 miles of Boston City Hall. Concentrations of lead, mercury and arsenic were measured in the samples. The potential amount of daily metal ingestion, estimated by using manufacturers' dosage recommendations, was compared to U.S. Pharmacopeia and U.S. EnvironmentalProtection Agency regulatory standards.

The researchers found that 14 (20 percent) of the 70 HMPs contained lead, mercury and/or arsenic, and that if taken as recommended by the manufacturer, each of these could result in heavy metal intake above the published regulatory standards. Lead was found in 13 HMPs; mercury in six HMPs; and arsenic in six HMPs. Half of the HMPs containing potentially toxic heavy metals were recommended for children. The 14 HMPs containing heavy metals were manufactured by 11 different companies. Of the 30 stores visited, 24 sold at least one heavy metal-containing HMP.

"... the presence of heavy metals in Ayurvedic HMPs and the numerous reports of associated toxicity may have important public health, clinical, and policy implications in the United States and abroad. Although the prevalence of heavy metal-containing Ayurvedic HMP use is unknown, the number of individuals at potential risk is substantial," the authors write. "Public health and community organizations should consider issuing advisories to current or previous Ayurvedic HMP users, encouraging them toconsult their physicians about heavy metal screening."

"Our findings support calls for reform of DSHEA that would require mandatory testing of all imported dietary supplements for toxic heavymetals," they conclude.

posted by Blog Admin @ 12:02   0 comments
About Herbs

Herbs are typically classified by reputable botanical authorities (i.e.
German E Commission, Herb Research Foundation, American Botanical Council, Physicians Desk Reference) as having certain known properties, classified as:

* alteratives - herbs that generally alter an existing condition in the
body by strengthening or stimulating various systems, and eliminating waste from the bloodstream
* anti-inflammatories - herbs that help reduce inflammation
* antimicrobials - herbs that inhibit reproduction and growth of harmful bacteria, fungi, or protozoa
* astringents - herbs that reduce inflammation of the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes
* cardiovascular tonics - herbs that strengthen the physical integrity of the heart and blood vessels, moderate blood pressure, and increase circulation
* carminatives - herbs that help relieve intestinal gas and indigestion, and are often antispasmodic
* demulcents - herbs that provide a protective lubricating barrier in the digestive and urinary tracts for the passage of wastes, and to help relieve irritation of mucous membranes
* diuretics - herbs that stimulate diuresis and water retention problems, and help eliminate excess waste and superfluous materials from the body
* immunotonics - herbs that stimulate and support immune system functions
* lymphatics - herbs that assist with lymph production and circulation
* nervines & sedatives - herbs that suppress or moderate nervous tension and anxiety, or that moderate or suppress activity in higher brain centers
* nutritives - herbs that naturally provide rich nutritional values
* vulneraries - herbs that promote healing

posted by Blog Admin @ 01:53   0 comments
22.6.06
About Parkinson Disease

What is Parkinson disease?

Parkinson disease is a brain disorder. It occurs when certain nerve cells (neurons) in a part of the brain called the substantia nigra die or become impaired. Normally, these cells produce a vital chemical known as dopamine. Dopamine allows smooth, coordinated function of the body's muscles and movement. When approximately 80% of the dopamine-producing cells are damaged, the symptoms of Parkinson disease appear.

What are the signs and symptoms of Parkinson disease?

The loss of dopamine production in the brain causes the primary symptoms of Parkinson disease. The key signs of Parkinson disease are:

- Tremor (shaking)
- Slowness of movement
- Rigidity (stiffness)
- Difficulty with balance

Other signs of Parkinson disease may include:

- Small, cramped handwriting
- Stiff facial expression
- Shuffling walk
- Muffled speech
- Depression
- Who gets Parkinson disease?

Parkinson disease affects both men and women in almost equal numbers. It shows no social, ethnic, economic or geographic boundaries. In the United States, it is estimated that 60,000 new cases are diagnosed each year, joining the 1.5 million Americans who currently have Parkinson disease. While the condition usually develops after the age of 65, 15% of thosediagnosed are under 50.

How is Parkinson disease diagnosed?

The process of making a Parkinson disease diagnosis can be difficult. There is no X-ray or blood test that can confirm Parkinson disease. A physician arrives at the diagnosis only after a thorough examination. Blood tests and brain scans known as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be performed to rule out other conditions that have similar symptoms. People suspected of having Parkinson disease should consider seeking thecare of a neurologist who specializes in Parkinson disease.

What is the treatment for Parkinson disease?

There are a number of effective medicines that help to ease the symptoms of Parkinson disease. Most symptoms are caused by lack of dopamine. The medicines most commonly used will attempt to either replace or mimic dopamine, which improves the tremor, rigidity and slowness associated with Parkinson disease. Several new medicines are being studied that may slow
the progression. Many promise to improve the lives of people with Parkinson disease.

Can surgery help Parkinson disease?

Surgery can ease the symptoms of Parkinson disease, but it is not a cure. Because of the risks associated with brain surgery, it is usually not considered unless all appropriate medications have been tried unsuccessfully. When considering surgery, it is important to see both a neurologist and brain surgeon who specialize in the treatment of Parkinson disease.

posted by Blog Admin @ 11:19   0 comments
Try the No-Sweat Solution to Better Health

For millions of overweight, couch-bound Americans, the word "exercise" conjures up visions of hectic aerobics classes, marathon running orhours-long workouts at the gym.

It's all a bit daunting.

But new research is beginning to change that view. Study after study is showing that small amounts of physical activity -- even walking the dog --can boost health in unexpected ways.

"For some people, it's as simple as parking their car on the far side of the parking lot and walking, or taking the stairs instead of the elevator. But the more you do, the better," said Dr. Gerald Fletcher, a cardiologist at the Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Fla., and a spokesman for the AmericanHeart Association.

More and more, fitness experts and physicians are discovering that exercise, like medicine, works on a dose-response basis -- even a little is good, moderate amounts are better, and vigorous exercise provides evenmore rewards.

Some evidence from the recent literature:

* A Duke University study of 133 overweight people found that a moderate fitness regimen involving a brisk one- to two-mile walk, four or five days a week, offered big improvements in cardiovascular health;
* A similar study, this time from the University of Florida, Gainesville, found that walking just a half-hour a day for five or more days a week greatly boosted the heart health of middle-aged "couch potatoes";
* In a Seattle study, an hour per week spent gardening cut cardiac arrest risk by 66 percent; an hour per week spent walking slashed that risk by 73 percent;
* People suffering from the painful condition peripheral arterial disease (PAD) also reaped real benefits from walking just three times a week, a Northwestern University study found;
* And a University of Missouri-Columbia study found that even our four-legged friends can help: Researchers found that overweight individuals who walked their dogs each day dropped an average of 14 pounds over the course of a year -- beating the results of most weight-loss plans.

Fletcher said it's important to get into a good exercise routine, preferably engaging in physical activity at the same time of day, each day. "Also, if you try and exercise two or three times a week, but then take a few days off, that's not as good as doing something most days," hesaid.

If walking a mile or two seems tough to visualize, he recommends driving it first in your car -- watching the odometer to see just how far a distance it is from your home. "Then, walk to that point each day," he said. Often, a little bit of exercise feels so good it gradually turnsinto a little bit more, he said.

"You can get more vigorous as you go," Fletcher added. "We consider (walking) a 20-minute mile 'moderate' exercise. Walking or running that mile in 15 minutes gets into the area of 'vigorous exercise.'"

Besides helping to shed pounds and bring a healthy elasticity to your step (and arteries), exercise can help clear the mind, too.

"What the studies are showing is that exercise, at least when performed in a group setting, seems to be at least as effective as standard antidepressants in reducing symptoms in patients with major depression," researcher James Blumenthal, a professor of medical psychology at DukeUniversity in Durham, N.C., told HealthDay.

Right now, just sitting on the sofa for long stretches is probably giving millions of Americans the blues, Fletcher pointed out. "Only about 25 percent of us exercise properly, and about 20 percent do absolutely nothing. The rest are in the middle -- sometimes they do it, sometimes
they don't."

Before beginning any exercise routine, it's important to check with your doctor, particularly if you have a history of health problems. Then, onceyou get clearance, get moving.

The key, Fletcher said, is to start your physical-activity routine with small steps -- literally.

"Walk a little, bike," he said. "Remember, anything you do is better than nothing at all."

posted by Blog Admin @ 05:50   1 comments
Dog Stroking can Transmit Debilitating Parasite

People can become infected with a worm that causes blindness simply by stroking the coats of dogs that carry the parasite.

The finding challenges previous assumptions that the worms only spread to people who come into contact with dog faeces, and suggests that owners need to be extra vigilant in washing and worming their pets.

In the US, around 10,000 people a year, mainly children under 12, become infected with Toxocara canis, a nematode worm that grows up to 20 centimetres long in the intestines of dogs.

In Britain the risk seems to be lower: "Fewer than 20 people a year get infected out of 60 million," says Ian Wright, a vet practising in Burnham-on-Sea, Somerset, whose findings are reported in The Veterinary Record (vol 152, p 419). Also, a quarter of the population have antibodies to toxocara, having developed immunity through exposure.

In infected people the worms can grow in the back of the eye, causing lesions which can interfere with vision or be mistaken for tumours. Occasionally they cause blindness. If they migrate to other organs such as the liver or lung they can also cause a form of toxocariasis, whose symptoms include periodic bouts of lethargy, similar to glandular fever.

Sticky eggs

Research by Wright and his co-investigator, Alan Wolfe, suggests that faeces might not be the only route of infection. Of 60 dogs they examined, a quarter had eggs of the worm in their hair. Three of the 71 eggs they recovered contained mature worm embryos which can infect humans. Embryos had begun to develop in 25 per cent of the eggs. They found up to 180 eggs in a gram of dog hair, a much higher density than is found in soil.

The vets say theirs is the first study to examine the coats of dogs as a route of infection. "We looked mainly at the anal region and the backs of the legs," says Wright. The millimetre-long eggs are very sticky and could easily be picked by someone stroking the animal, he says.

The finding points to toxocara infection being a dog ownership problem, Wright says. "It has probably got very little to do with dogs fouling public places." It also shows that dog owners should regularly wash and worm their pets, especially puppies, which are often infected through the placenta if the mother has worms.

Puppies should be wormed every fortnight for the first three months, then once a month for the following three months, says Wright. After six months, dogs develop some immunity and only need worming every six months and washing every fortnight. Wright's most important advice is for people handling dogs: "Wash your hands before meals, and after a good cuddle," he says. And ensure good hygiene if infants and babies share the house with dogs.

A spokesman for the Chartered Institute of Environmental Health, which represents Britain's environmental health inspectors, says the finding should be kept in proportion, as there are so few cases of toxocariasis a year. But he echoed Wright's warnings about the importance of hygiene, both for dogs and for people who handle them.

posted by Blog Admin @ 01:42   0 comments
 
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